The study of women’s roles and daily lives in ancient societies not only deepens our understanding of social history, but also focuses our attention on the categories of analysis we use for all aspects of historical inquiry. Asking about women’s roles in the military history of Archaic Greece, for example, expands the investigation from the battlefield to the wider socio-economic framework of the region. Considering women in the economic nexus of the Greek Hellenistic era draws our attention to gendered crafts such as weaving; in Classical Corinth, the role of female temple prostitutes illuminates the political-religious system. After having taken this course, students will be able to think critically about women and gender as a historical force in the ancient world. The framework of this course is the traditional historical survey with an emphasis on gender as a useful category of historical inquiry.